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Driver's Handbook on Cargo Securement - Chapter 2: General Cargo Securement Requirements

General Cargo Securement Requirements

Immobilizing, and Securing Cargo: Restraining the cargo correctly - Continued

Tiedowns attached to the cargo

Tiedowns attached to the cargo work by counteracting the forces acting on the cargo

The angle where the tiedown attaches to the vehicle should be shallow, not deep (ideally less than 45).

To counteract forward movement, attach the tiedown so it pulls the cargo toward the rear of the vehicle.

To counteract rearward movement, attach the tiedown so it pulls the cargo toward the front of the vehicle.

To counteract movement to one side, attach the tiedown so it pulls the cargo toward the opposite side of the vehicle.

To counteract upward movement, attach tiedowns to opposing sides of the cargo so they pull the cargo down.

Tiedowns that pass over the cargo

Tiedowns that pass over the cargo work by increasing the effective weight of the cargo (make the cargo seem heavier). This increases the pressure of the cargo on the deck and keeps the cargo from shifting.

Tension these tiedowns to as high an initial tension as possible

The steeper the tiedown angle, the less shifting (ideally more than 45).

What should you use in low-friction situations?

When there is low friction between the cargo and the deck (for example, with snow, ice, sand, gravel, and oil):

  • Use tiedowns attached to the cargo.
  • Use a means to improve the friction such as friction mats or tiedown that pass over the cargo.
  • Use blocking and tiedowns.

Containing, Immobilizing, and Securing Cargo: Using adequate securing devices.

What is a Working Load Limit (WLL)?

The Working Load Limit is the maximum load that may be applied to a component of a cargo securement system during normal service.

The WLL is usually assigned by the component manufacturer.

WLL for tiedowns.

The WLL for a tiedown is the lowest WLL of any of its parts or the WLL of the anchor points it is attached to, whichever is less. Every device contributes to the WLL of the securement system.

For a synthetic webbing tiedown, the WLL is the working load limit of the tiedown assembly or the anchor point it is attached to, whichever is less.

Note: The minimum WLL requirement for the securement system is 50%. More tiedown capacity should be used if you need to secure an article against any movement.

WLL for blocking systems

The WLL of all components used to block cargo from forward movement must be 50% (or more) of the weight of the article being blocked.

Working Load Limits: marked components

Some manufacturers mark their manufactured securing devices with a numeric WLL value. The WLL for these devices is equal to the numeric value assigned by the manufacturer.

Other manufacturers mark components using a code or symbol that is defined in a recognized standard. For example:

A piece of grade 7 chain may be marked with a 70 or 700, in accordance with the standard of the National Association of Chain Manufacturers. The standard then gives the WLL for that piece of chain, depending on its size.

Working Load limits: unmarked components

Any securing device that is not marked by the manufacturer is considered to have a WLL as specified in Appendix A: Default WLLs for Unmarked Tiedowns.

Carriers are recommended to purchase and use components that are rated and marked by their manufacturer. In that way, the carrier, driver, shipper and inspector can all verify that the proper equipment is being used for the job.

Note: Friction mats, which are not marked by the manufacturer, are assumed to provide a resistance to horizontal movement equal to 50% of the cargo weight that is resting on the mat.

Related Cargo Securement Terms That Every Driver Should Know:

  • Edge protector:

    A device placed on the exposed edge of an article to distribute tiedown forces over a larger area of cargo than the tiedown itself, to protect the tie-down and/or cargo from damage, and to allow the tiedown to slide freely when being tensioned.

  • Intermodal Container:

    A reusable, transportable enclosure that is especially designed with integral locking devices that secure it to a container chassis trailer to facilitate the efficient and bulk shipping and transfer of goods by, or between various modes of transport, such as highway, rail, sea, and air.

  • Stake Pocket:

    A female housing fixed to the side or ends of a vehicle to receive a stake or peg, and may also be used as an anchor point.

CDL:

Commercial Driver's License (CDL)

A CDL is required to drive any of the following vehicles:

  • Any combination of vehicles with a gross combined weight rating (GCWR) of 26,001 or more pounds, providing the gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) of the vehicle being towed is in excess of 10,000 pounds.
  • Any single vehicle with a GVWR of 26,001 or more pounds, or any such vehicle towing another not in excess of 10,000 pounds.
  • Any vehicle, regardless of size, designed to transport 16 or more persons, including the driver.
  • Any vehicle required by federal regulations to be placarded while transporting hazardous materials.

Shipper:

The customer who is shipping the freight. This is where the driver will pick up a load and then deliver it to the receiver or consignee.

Intermodal:

Transporting freight using two or more transportation modes. An example would be freight that is moved by truck from the shipper's dock to the rail yard, then placed on a train to the next rail yard, and finally returned to a truck for delivery to the receiving customer.

In trucking when you hear someone refer to an intermodal job they're normally talking about hauling shipping containers to and from the shipyards and railyards.

Review Questions - Click On The Picture To Begin...

What is the presumed resistance to horizontal movement of friction mats?
  • 50% of cargo weight.
  • 100% of cargo weight.
  • 20% of cargo weight.
  • 0

Quote From The CDL Manual:

Note: Friction mats, which are not marked by the manufacturer, are assumed to provide a resistance to horizontal movement equal to 50% of the cargo weight that is resting on the mat.

Next
An intermodal container is:
  • A vehicle especially built and fitted with locking devices for transport.
  • A reusable, transportable enclosure that is especially designed with integral locking devices that secure it to a container chassis trailer to facilitate the efficient and bulk shipping and transfer of goods by, or between various modes of transport, such as highway, rail, sea, and air.
  • A specialized container, primarily used to contain and transport materials in the waste, recycling, construction/demolition, and scrap industries, which are used in conjunction with specialized vehicles, in which the container isloaded and unloaded onto a tilt frame body by an articulating hook-arm.
  • A platform or tray on which cargo is placed so that it can be handled as an article. (Same as "Skid")

Quote From The CDL Manual:

Intermodal Container:

A reusable, transportable enclosure that is especially designed with integral locking devices that secure it to a container chassis trailer to facilitate the efficient and bulk shipping and transfer of goods by, or between various modes of transport, such as highway, rail, sea, and air.

Prev
Next
In case of low friction between the cargo and deck, which of these is not a solution?
  • Attach tiedowns to the cargo.
  • Put something heavy on top of the cargo.
  • Use some kind of blocking.
  • Set the cargo on friction mats.

Quote From The CDL Manual:

What should you use in low-friction situations?

When there is low friction between the cargo and the deck (for example, with snow, ice, sand, gravel, and oil):

  • Use tiedowns attached to the cargo.
  • Use a means to improve the friction such as friction mats or tiedown that pass over the cargo.
  • Use blocking and tiedowns.
Prev
Next
What is the maximum weight that can be secured by a tiedown with a marked WLL of 5,000 lbs?
  • 6,000 lbs
  • 2,500 lbs
  • 5,000 lbs
  • 10,000 lbs

Quote From The CDL Manual:

Note: The minimum WLL requirement for the securement system is 50%. More tiedown capacity should be used if you need to secure an article against any movement.

Prev
Next
Which of the following is not true of Working Load Limit (WLL)?
  • The WLL is usually assigned by the component manufacturer.
  • The Working Load Limit is the maximum load that may be applied to a component of a cargo securement system.
  • The minimum WLL requirement for the securement system is 25%.
  • All of these are true.

Quote From The CDL Manual:

The Working Load Limit is the maximum load that may be applied to a component of a cargo securement system during normal service.

The WLL is usually assigned by the component manufacturer.

Note: The minimum WLL requirement for the securement system is 50%. More tiedown capacity should be used if you need to secure an article against any movement.

Prev
Next
A female housing fixed to the side or ends of a vehicle to receive a stake or peg, and may also be used as an anchor point is a:
  • Stake pocket
  • Void filler
  • Cleat
  • Bulkhead

Quote From The CDL Manual:

Stake Pocket:

A female housing fixed to the side or ends of a vehicle to receive a stake or peg, and may also be used as an anchor point.

Prev
Next
The term 'edge protector' refers to:
  • A vertical barrier placed directly behind the cab of a tractor to protect the cab in the event cargo should shift forward.
  • A device placed on the exposed edge of an article to distribute tiedown forces over a larger area of cargo than the tiedown itself, to protect the tie-down and/or cargo from damage, and to allow the tiedown to slide freely when being tensioned.
  • A structure, device, or another substantial article placed against an article to prevent it from tipping that may also prevent it from shifting.
  • A rail along the side of a vehicle that protects the side of the vehicle from impacts.

Quote From The CDL Manual:

Edge protector:

A device placed on the exposed edge of an article to distribute tiedown forces over a larger area of cargo than the tiedown itself, to protect the tie-down and/or cargo from damage, and to allow the tiedown to slide freely when being tensioned.

Prev
Next
When a tiedown is attached directly to the cargo, what is the ideal angle where it attached to the vehicle?
  • Less than 45 degrees.
  • It doesn't matter.
  • Between 45 and 60 degrees.
  • 90 degrees.

Quote From The CDL Manual:

The angle where the tiedown attaches to the vehicle should be shallow, not deep (ideally less than 45).

Prev
Next
What is the minimum Working Load Limit for the entire securement system?
  • 80% of cargo weight.
  • 100% of cargo weight.
  • 20% of cargo weight.
  • 50% of cargo weight.

Quote From The CDL Manual:

Note: The minimum WLL requirement for the securement system is 50%. More tiedown capacity should be used if you need to secure an article against any movement.

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Finish
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