Which log below contains at least one violation?

#### Day 1

#### Day 2

- Day 2
- Day 1
- There are no violations in this example
- Both day 1 and day 2

### From The CDL Manual

#### Day 1

#### Day 2

** Violations:** There is a 30 minute break violation in this example from 6:00 p.m. - 10:00 p.m and 11:00 p.m. to Midnight on Day 1.

** Explanation - 11 Hour Limit:** On Day 1, the driver drove from 11:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. (5 hours) then again from 6:00 p.m. to 10:00 p.m. (4 hours) and finally from 11:00 p.m. to Midnight (1 hour). Therefore, the driver drove for a total of 10 hours on Day 1 (5 + 4 + 1) and never violated the 11 hour limit. On Day 2, the driver only drove between the hours of 10:00 a.m. and 2:00 p.m. for a total of 4 hours, thus, no violation of the 11 hour limit occurred.

** Explanation - 30 Minute Break:** On Day 1, the calculation point for the 30 minute break provision is 10:00 a.m. In order to continue driving beyond 6:00 p.m. (8 hours after the initial starting calculation point) a 30 minute break off duty must be taken. Since the driver never took a break off duty, a 30 minute break violation occurred between the hours of 6:00 p.m. and 10:00 p.m. The driver then went on duty between the hours of 10:00 p.m. and 11:00 p.m., before violating the 30 minute break provision again by driving a CMV between 11:00 p.m. and Midnight. In order to remain legal, the driver should have taken his/her 30 minute break by 6:00 p.m. On Day 2, the driver was only on duty for a total of 7 consecutive hours which would not require a 30 minute break.

** Explanation - 14 Hour Limit:** After taking 10 consecutive hours off duty, the driver had 14 hours available beginning at 10:00 a.m. on Day 1. The driver switched into the sleeper berth at Midnight, exactly 14 hours later. Since the driver remained in the sleeper for 10 consecutive hours, the 14 hour limit reset and the new starting calculation point was then 10:00 a.m. on Day 2. The driver only remained on duty from the hours of 10:00 a.m. until 5:00 p.m. for a total of 7 hours of on duty time on Day 2. The driver remined legal on both days and no violation occurred.

What violations occurred on the below example?

- There is a 30 minute break violation
- There are no violations on this example
- There is a 14 hour rule violation and a 30 minute break violation
- There is an 11 hour rule violation and a 30 minute break violation

### From The CDL Manual

** Violations:** There is a 30 minute break violation from 11 p.m. to midnight.

** Explanation - 11 Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty, the driver was eligible to drive for up to 11 hours beginning at midnight. The driver drove for 5 hours before obtaining 10 consecutive hours off duty using a combination of consecutive off duty and sleeper berth time. This 10 hour break moves the calculation point to 3:00 p.m., at which point the driver had another 11 hours available. Because the driver then drove for only 9 hours (out of an available 11), there are no violations.

** Explanation - 30 Minute Break:** After taking 10 consecutive hours off duty from 5:00 a.m. to 3:00 p.m., the driver was eligible to drive for 11 hours. However, the driver did not meet the 30 minute break provision requirements. At 11 p.m., the driver had been on duty longer than 8 consecutive hours without a 30 minute break. As such, the driver was not allowed to operate a CMV from the hours of 11:00 p.m. to Midnight.

** Explanation - 14 Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty on the previous day, the driver had 14 hours available beginning at Midnight. The driver accumulated just 5 on duty hours before going off duty for another 10 consecutive hours. The calculation point then moves to 3:00 p.m., and after that point the driver accumulated 9 hours on duty which is within the legal 14 hour limit.

Which day on the example below contains a violation?

#### Day 1

#### Day 2

- There is a violation on both Day 1 and Day 2
- There are no violations on Day 1 or Day 2
- There is a violation on Day 1
- There is a violation on Day 2

### From The CDL Manual

#### Day 1

#### Day 2

** Violations:** There are no violations in this example.

** Explanation - 11 Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty, the driver had 11 hours of drive time available. The starting calculation point on Day 1 is 11:00 a.m. The driver drove between the hours of 11:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. (2 hours) then again between 4:00 p.m. to 6:00 p.m. (2 hours) and finally between 7:00 a.m. to 11:00 p.m. (4 hours) for a total of 8 hours of drive time on Day 1. On Day 2, the driver took 10 consecutive hours off duty (split between off duty and sleeper berth time) which reset the 11 hour limit. The new calculation point for Day 2 is 1:00 p.m. when the driver first began driving that day. Since the driver only drove between the hours of 1:00 p.m. to 5:00 p.m. (4 hours), no violation occurred.

** Explanation - 30 Minute Break:** A driver may drive only if 8 hours or less have passed since the end of the driver’s last off duty period of at least 30 minutes. In this example, the starting calculation point is at 10:00 a.m. on Day 1. The driver was on duty for 1 hour, drove for 2 hours, was on duty for 3 hours, and then drove 2 more hours - totaling 8 hours (combined driving and on duty time) without taking any time off duty. At 6:00 p.m. on Day 1, the driver takes the required minimum 30 minute off duty break until 6:30 p.m. This allowed the driver to legally complete the 14 hour window at Midnight with 4 more hours of driving and 1 hour of on duty time. While the driver was on duty for 9 hours on Day 2, the driver stopped driving for the day at 5:00 p.m., only 7 hours after taking his/her last off duty break. Therefore, no 30 minute break was required and no violation occurred. The hours spent on duty from 5:00 p.m. to 7:00 p.m. were legal because no actual driving took place.

** Explanation - 14 Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty, the driver had 14 hours to perform all driving tasks starting at 10:00 a.m. on Day 1. At Midnight, exactly 14 hours later, the driver went off duty for 10 consecutive hours (combination of off duty and sleeper berth) which reset the 14 hour limit. The new starting calculation point for the 14 hour limit was 10:00 a.m. (the first point at which the driver went on duty after taking 10 consecutive hours off duty). After 9 hours of performing a combination of on duty and driving tasks, the driver switched to the sleeper berth for the remainder of Day 2, thus, no violation occurred.

Is there a 14 hour rule violation on Day 2?

#### Day 1

#### Day 2

- Yes, at 1:00 a.m.
- Yes, at 9:00 p.m.
- Yes, at 7:00 a.m.
- No 14 hour rule violation occurs

### From The CDL Manual

#### Day 1

#### Day 2

** Violations:** There are no violations in this example.

** Explanation - 11 Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty, the driver had 11 hours of driving time available beginning at 2:00 a.m. on Day 1. The driver used those 11 hours by 4:00 p.m. on Day 1, when he or she entered the sleeper berth for 8 consecutive hours. Because the driver accumulated at least 10 hours of rest using a combination of at least 8 consecutive hours in a sleeper berth (4:00 p.m. to Midnight on Day 1) and another break of at least 2 consecutive hours (8:00 a.m. to 10:00 a.m. on Day 1), he or she was eligible for the split sleeper berth provision. This moves the calculation point to the end of the first of the two periods of rest, or 10:00 a.m. on Day 1. Starting the calculation from there, the driver accumulated another 10 hours of driving by 5:00 a.m. on Day 2. By 7:00 a.m. on Day 2, the driver accumulated another pair of qualifying breaks totaling at least 10 hours [4:00 p.m. to Midnight on Day 1 (8 hours) and 5:00 a.m. to 7:00 a.m. on Day 2 (2 hours)]. This moves the calculation point again, to the end of the first of the two breaks, or Midnight beginning Day 2. From there, the driver accumulated another 10 hours of driving by 1:00 p.m. on Day 2. The pattern of 8/2 split sleeper berth provisions continued, with no 11 hour violations.

** Explanation - 30 Minute Break:** On Day 1, the driver spent a total of 12 hours split between on duty and driving time. In order to continue driving beyond the 8th hour, a 30 minute break must be recorded. The calculation point on Day 1 is 2:00 a.m., so in order to continue driving after 10:00 a.m. (8 hours later), a minimum of 30 minutes must be spent off duty. In this example, the driver spent 2 hours in the sleeper berth from 8:00 a.m. to 10:00 a.m. and this satisfies the 30 minute break requirement, so no violation occurred. On Day 2, the driver first went on duty at midnight. In order to drive a CMV after 8:00 a.m. (8 hours later) a minimum of a 30 minute break off duty would be required. The driver met that requirement by taking a 2 hour break off duty (sleeper berth) break between 5:00 a.m. and 7:00 a.m. The hours spent driving between 9:00 p.m. and Midnight on Day 1 are also legal since an 8 hour break was taken between 1:00 p.m. and 9:00 p.m.

** Explanation - 14 Hour Limit:** Calculation of the 14 hour limit begins at 2:00 a.m. on Day 1. The driver accumulates 14 hours by 4:00 p.m. before entering the sleeper berth. Because the driver then met the requirements for the split sleeper berth provision, the calculation point moves to the end of the first qualifying break, or 10:00 a.m. on Day 1. So at Midnight leading into Day 2, the driver had accumulated 6 hours. By 7:00 a.m. on Day 2, the driver accumulated another pair of qualifying breaks totaling at least 10 hours and has not exceeded the 14 hour limit. This moves the calculation point again, to the end of the first of the two breaks, or Midnight leading into Day 2. From there, the driver accumulated 13 of 14 hours by 1:00 p.m. on Day 2. This split sleeper berth pattern continued, with no 14 hour limit violations.

How many violations occur on the below example?

#### Day 1

#### Day 2

- 1
- 0
- 2
- 3

### From The CDL Manual

#### Day 1

#### Day 2

** Violations:** Day 2 contains 2 violations. There is a 14 hour rule violation from 8:00 a.m. - 10:00 a.m. and a 30 minute break violation from 8:00 p.m. - 9:00 p.m.

** Explanation - 11 Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty, the driver had 11 hours of driving time available at 10:00 a.m. on Day 1. The driver completed 11 hours of driving by 10:00 a.m. on Day 2 and was not eligible for more driving until taking time off duty. Because the driver had 8 consecutive hours in a sleeper berth and then 2 consecutive hours off duty, he or she was eligible for the split sleeper berth provision, meaning, the driver accumulated at least 10 hours of rest using a combination of at least 8 consecutive hours in a sleeper berth and another break of at least 2 consecutive hours. This moves the 11 hour calculation point to the end of the first of the two qualifying breaks, or 8:00 a.m. on Day 2. Counting forward from there, the driver had 2 hours of driving plus an additional 9 hours of driving for a total of 11, with no violations.

** Explanation - 30 Minute Break:** On Day 1, the driver was never on duty long enough to require a 30 minute break. But on Day 2, once the driver went on duty (driving) at noon, he/she had to complete a 30 minute break by 8:00 p.m. before driving any further. The driver continued to drive beyond that limit by one hour. From 8:00 p.m. to 9:00 p.m. the driver was in violation of the 30 minute break provision.

** Explanation - 14 Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty, the driver had 14 hours available at 10:00 a.m. on Day 1. The driver reached the 14 hour limit at midnight (note that all off duty periods of less than 10 hours are included in the calculation). The driver then entered the sleeper berth for 8 consecutive hours, which is excluded from the 14 hour calculation. But because the driver did not have an earlier 2 hour break and did not obtain 10 consecutive hours off duty, the calculation point does not move (that is, the 14 hour calculation continues from Day 1 into Day 2). At 8:00 a.m. on Day 2, the driver was still at the 14 hour limit and had no time remaining. He or she violated the rule by driving for 2 more hours. The driver then took 2 consecutive hours off duty and was able to take advantage of the split sleeper berth provision. The calculation point moves to 8:00 a.m. on Day 2 (the end of the first period used in the “split”), and counting forward from there the driver accumulated just 13 hours by 9:00 p.m., within the limits.

What violation occurs in the example below?

#### Day 1

#### Day 2

- There is a 30 minute break violation
- There are no violations
- There is a 14 hour rule violation
- There is an 11 hour rule violation

### From The CDL Manual

#### Day 1

#### Day 2

** Violations:** There are no violations in this example.

** Explanation - 11 Hour Limit:** On Day 1, the driver began operating a CMV at 10:00 a.m. and was allowed to drive for 11 hours. The driver drove for exactly 8 hours before switching back to the sleeper berth for the remainder of the day. On Day 2, the driver used the split sleeper berth provision and spent a total of 11 hours driving which is within the legal HOS limits.

** Explanation - 30 Minute break:** Since the driver was only on duty for a total of 8 hours on Day 1, a 30 minute break was never required. A 30 minute break is only required if a driver wants to operate a CMV and it has been

*more*than 8 hours since the last off duty period of at least 30 minutes. On Day 2, the driver fulfilled the 30 minute break provision by taking 1/2 hour off duty from 1:00 p.m. to 1:30 p.m. Had the driver not taken that break, he/she would have violated the provision from 2:00 p.m. until 3:30 p.m. However, in this case, no violation occurred.

** Explanation - 14 Hour Limit:** After spending 10 consecutive hours off duty on Day 1, the driver switched his/her status to driving at 10:00 a.m. This is the starting calculation point for the 14 hour limit. Therefore, the driver had until Midnight on Day 1 to complete all driving tasks. Since the driver switched back into the sleeper berth at 6:00 p.m. and remained there for the rest of the day, no violation occurred on Day 1. The driver took an 8 hour break in the sleeper berth from 6:00 p.m. on Day 1 until 2:00 a.m. on Day 2. Those 8 hours spent in the sleeper berth do not count against the drivers 14 hour limit (per the 8 hour sleeper berth provision). So at 2:00 a.m. on Day 2, the driver still had 6 hours remaining on his/her 14 hour limit (14 available hours - 8 hours of on duty time before the 8 hour break = 6 hours remaining). The driver used up 2 of those hours driving between 2:00 a.m. and 4:00 a.m., leaving 4 hours before the 14 hour limit expires. By switching into the sleeper berth for 2 additional hours, a split sleeper berth provision was completed (8 hours off duty followed by 2 hours off duty). At that point, we can simply subtract the 2 hours of drive time and the 2 hours of sleeper berth time from our new 14 hour limit for a total of 10 hours remaining beginning at 6:00 a.m. Since the driver went back into the sleeper berth exactly 10 hours later at 4:00 p.m., no violation occurred.

On what day and time does an 11 hour rule violation occur?

#### Day 1

#### Day 2

- Day 2 at 5:00 a.m.
- Day 1 at 6:00 p.m.
- There is no 11 hour rule violation on either day of this example
- Day 2 at 3:00 a.m.

### From The CDL Manual

#### Day 1

#### Day 2

** Violations:** There is a 30 minute break violation from 6:00 p.m. to 7:00 p.m. on Day 1. On Day 2, there is an 11 hour rule violation from 5:00 a.m. - 6:00 a.m.

** Explanation - 11 Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty, the driver had 11 hours of driving time available at 10:00 a.m. on Day 1. At the end of the day, the driver had 2 hours remaining and, without a valid 10 hour break, the driver violated the 11 hour limit by driving an additional 1 hour at 5 a.m. on Day 2.

** Explanation - 30 Minute Break:** As soon as the driver went into an on duty status (driving) at 10:00 a.m. on Day 1, the driver was allowed an 8 consecutive hour time frame to drive a CMV until a 30 minute break had to be taken. The driver did not stop driving until 9 hours had passed, thus violating the 30 minute break provision from 6:00 p.m. to 7:00 p.m. on Day 1. On Day 2, the driver was only on duty for a total of 3 hours which does not require a 30 minute break.

** Explanation - 14 Hour Limit:** Calculation of the 14 hour limit begins at 10:00 a.m. on Day 1. The driver used 9 of 14 available hours on Day 1. Because the driver then got at least 8 consecutive hours in a sleeper berth from 7:00 p.m. on day 1 until 3:00 a.m. on Day 2, that rest break is not included in the 14 hour calculation. The new 14 hour limit calculation point was then 3:00 a.m. with 5 hours remaining (14 available hours - 9 hours used on Day 1). At 6:00 a.m. the driver switched to off duty for the remainder of the day with 2 hours remaining on the 14 hour limit.

Which violations have occurred in the below example?

#### Day 1

#### Day 2

- There is an 11 hour violation only
- There is a 14 hour violation only
- There is a 14 hour violation and an 11 hour violation
- There is a 14 hour violation and a 30 minute break violation

### From The CDL Manual

#### Day 1

#### Day 2

** Violations:** There is an 11 hour rule violation from 11:00 a.m. - 1:00 p.m., and a 14 hour rule violation from 7:00 a.m. - 1:00 p.m., both on Day 2.

** Explanation - 11 Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty, the driver had 11 hours of driving time available at 10:00 a.m. on Day 1. The driver did not have another 10 hour break (or the equivalent) until 1:00 p.m. on Day 2, so the calculation point never changes. The driver accumulated 7 total hours of driving on Day 1 and reached the 11 hour limit at 11:00 a.m. on Day 2. The violation began when the driver continued driving after that limit.

** Explanation - 30 Minute Break:** Since the longest consecutive stretch of on duty time was only 6 hours, the driver was never required to take a 30 minute break on either Day 1 or Day 2.

** Explanation - 14 Hour Limit:** Calculation of the 14 hour limit starts at 10:00 a.m. on Day 1. The 14 hour limit was reached at midnight, and the driver violated the 14 hour rule by driving a CMV starting at 7:00 a.m. on Day 2.

** To remain in compliance:** The driver should have stayed in the sleeper berth for one additional hour during one of the two sleeper berth breaks. This would have given the driver the equivalent of 10 hours off duty, making him or her eligible for the sleeper berth provision. This would have moved the calculation point to the end of the first of the two breaks (10:00 p.m. on Day 1) and the driver would have remained in compliance on Day 2, in this example.

What violation has occurred at 8:00 a.m. on Day 2?

#### Day 1

#### Day 2

- There is an 11 hour rule violation
- There is no violation
- There is a 14 hour rule violation
- There is an 11 hour and 14 hour rule violation

### From The CDL Manual

#### Day 1

#### Day 2

** Violations:** There are 11 and 14 hour rule violations from 8:00 a.m. - 1:00 p.m. on Day 2.

** Explanation - 11 Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty, the driver was eligible to drive for up to 11 hours beginning at 2:00 a.m. on Day 1. The driver reached the 11 hour driving limit at 3:00 p.m. on Day 1 and did not obtain another 10 hour break before driving again at 8:00 a.m. on Day 2, thus violating the 11 hour limit. The driver then obtained 8 consecutive hours in a sleeper berth, which, combined with the earlier 7 1/2 hour sleeper berth period, made the driver eligible for the split sleeper berth provision which means the driver accumulated at least 10 hours of rest using a combination of at least 8 (but less than 10) consecutive hours in a sleeper berth and another break of at least 2 (but less than 10) consecutive hours. This moves the 11 hour calculation point to the end of the first of the two qualifying breaks, or 5:00 a.m. on Day 2. Between 5:00 a.m. and 9:00 p.m., the driver had 5 hours of driving, so at 9:00 p.m. on Day 2 there were 6 hours remaining, and there were no further 11 hour rule violations.

** Explanation - 30 Minute Break:** The driver was never on duty or driving for enough consecutive hours which would make 30 minute break mandatory, therefore the 30 minute break provisions does not apply in this example.

** Explanation - 14 Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty, the driver had 14 hours available beginning at 2:00 a.m. on Day 1. The 14 hour limit was reached at 4:00 p.m. on Day 1. Without a valid 10 hour break, the hours continued to accumulate into Day 2, and the driver violated the 14 hour rule by driving at 8:00 a.m. The driver then went into the sleeper berth for 8 consecutive hours, which enabled him or her to take advantage of the split sleeper berth provision. This moves the 14 hour calculation point to 5:00 a.m. on Day 2, the end of the first of the two qualifying breaks. Counting forward from there, the 8 hours from 5:00 a.m. to 1:00 p.m. are included in the calculation, but the 8 hour sleeper berth period is excluded. Therefore, at 9:00 p.m. on Day 2, the driver had 6 hours remaining and had no further violations of the 14 hour rule.

** To remain in compliance:** The driver should have remained in the sleeper berth until 5:30 a.m. on Day 2, thus moving the calculation point to 9:00 p.m. on Day 1. Or, at 9:00 p.m. on Day 1, the driver should have remained in the sleeper berth instead of going on duty for 30 minutes.

How many violations have occurred on the below log?

- 3
- 2
- 0
- 1

### From The CDL Manual

** Violations:** There is a 14 hour rule violation from 5:00 p.m. - 10:00 p.m.

** Explanation - 11 Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty, the driver had 11 hours of driving time available at 2:00 a.m. The driver completed 11 total hours of driving by 10:00 p.m. and went off duty, so there were no violations of the 11 hour rule.

** Explanation - 30 Minute Break:** Once the driver began driving at 2:00 a.m., a 30 minute break was not needed until 10:00 a.m. (8 hours after first going on duty). Since the driver went off duty at 8:00 a.m. and spent more than 30 minutes off duty (sleeper berth), the driver was never in violation. During the hours of 5:00 p.m. to 10:00 p.m., the driver was only on duty (driving) for 5 hours before moving back to off duty. Even though the 14 hour limit was being violated during that time, the 30 minute break provision was not violated.

** Explanation - 14 Hour Limit:** After 10 consecutive hours off duty, the driver had 14 hours available beginning at 2:00 a.m. The driver reached the 14 hour limit at 4:00 p.m. and violated the rules by driving an additional 5 hours without first obtaining either: 10 consecutive hours off duty; or 8 consecutive hours in a sleeper berth. To remain in compliance the driver should have either:

- Obtained one additional hour off duty or in the sleeper berth in the middle of the day (for a total of 10 consecutive hours off duty) or;
- Remained in the sleeper berth for 8 consecutive hours, rather than only 7. Had the driver remained in the sleeper for 8 consecutive hours, that 8-hour sleeper period would have been excluded from the 14 hour calculation and the driver would have remained in compliance.