Choose A Section:Go!
Which of the following are best practices for backing a trailer?
What causes the "crack-the-whip" effect?
"Rearward amplification" causes the crack-the-whip effect.
The emergency line has two purposes. What are they?
Rearward amplification of 2.0 in the chart means:
Rearward amplification of 2.0 in the chart means that the rear trailer is twice as likely to turn over as the tractor.
When inspecting the air brakes of a combination vehicle you will pump the brake pedal continuously to reduce the air pressure in the air tanks. What should happen when the air pressure gets down between 20 - 45 psi?
When more cargo is piled up in a truck:
More than half of truck driver deaths in crashes are the result of:
You should do which of the following to help avoid rollovers?
Steer gently and smoothly when you are pulling trailers. If you make a sudden movement with your steering wheel, your trailer could tip over. Follow far enough behind other vehicles (at least 1 second for each 10 feet of your vehicle length, plus another second if going over 40 mph). Look far enough down the road to avoid being surprised and having to make a sudden lane change. At night, drive slowly enough to see obstacles with your headlights before it is too late to change lanes or stop gently. Slow down to a safe speed before going into a turn.
How do you control airflow in the service line to the trailer?
Every combination vehicle has two air lines that run between each vehicle (tractor to trailer, trailer to dolly, dolly to the second trailer, etc.):
Choose your next section:
The Combination Vehicles portion of the CDL exam is included in the General Knowledge portion of the written exam for your CDL permit. This section provides information needed to pass the tests for combination vehicles including tractor-trailer, doubles, triples, and straight truck with trailer.
This section covers:
More than half of truck driver deaths in crashes are the result of truck rollovers. When more cargo is piled up in a truck, the "center of gravity" moves higher up from the road. The truck becomes easier to turn over. Fully loaded rigs are 10 times more likely to roll over in a crash than empty rigs.
Two things will help prevent rollover: keep the cargo as close to the ground as possible and drive slowly around turns. Keeping cargo low is even more important in combination vehicles than in straight trucks. Also, keep the load centered on your rig. If the load is to one side so it makes a trailer lean, a rollover is more likely. Make sure your cargo is centered and spread out as much as possible.
Trucks with trailers have a dangerous "crack-the-whip" effect. When you make a quick lane change, the crack-thewhip effect can turn the trailer over. There are many accidents where only the trailer has overturned.
When the wheels of a trailer lock up, the trailer will tend to swing around. This is more likely to happen when the trailer is empty or lightly loaded. This type of jackknife is often called a "trailer jackknife.
The procedure for stopping a trailer skid is:
The earliest and best way to recognize that the trailer has started to skid is by seeing it in your mirrors. Any time you apply the brakes hard, check the mirrors to make sure the trailer is staying where it should be. Once the trailer swings out of your lane, it is very difficult to prevent a jackknife.
Release the brakes to get traction back. Do not use the trailer hand brake (if you have one) to "straighten out the rig." This is the wrong thing to do since the brakes on the trailer wheels caused the skid in the first place. Once the trailer wheels grip the road again, the trailer will start to follow the tractor and straighten out.
When backing a car, straight truck or bus, you turn the top of the steering wheel in the direction you want to go. When backing a trailer, you turn the steering wheel in the opposite direction. Once the trailer starts to turn, you must turn the wheel the other way to follow the trailer.
Whenever you back up with a trailer, try to position your vehicle so you can back in a straight line. If you must back on a curved path, back to the driver's side so you can see.
Look at Your Path:
Look at your line of travel before you begin. Get out and walk around the vehicle. Check your clearance to the sides and overhead, in and near the path of your vehicle.
Check the outside mirrors on both sides frequently.Get out of the vehicle and re-inspect your path if you are unsure.
This will let you make corrections before you get too far off course. Correct Drift Immediately: As soon as you see the trailer getting off the proper path, correct it by turning the top of the steering wheel in the direction of the drift.
When backing a trailer, make pull-ups to re-position your vehicle as needed.
The tractor protection valve keeps air in the tractor or truck brake system should the trailer break away or develop a bad leak. The tractor protection valve is controlled by the "trailer air supply" control valve in the cab. The control valve allows you to open and shut the tractor protection valve. The tractor protection valve will close automatically if air pressure is low (in the range of 20 to 45 psi). When the tractor protection valve closes, it stops any air from going out of the tractor. It also lets the air out of the trailer emergency line. This causes the trailer emergency brakes to come on, with possible loss of control.
The trailer air supply control on newer vehicles is a red eight-sided knob, which you use to control the tractor protection valve. You push it in to supply the trailer with air and pull it out to shut the air off and put on the trailer emergency brakes. The valve will pop out (thus closing the tractor protection valve) when the air pressure drops into the range of 20 to 45 psi. Tractor protection valve controls or "emergency" valves on older vehicles may not operate automatically. There may be a lever rather than a knob. The "normal" position is used for pulling a trailer. The "emergency" position is used to shut the air off and put on the trailer emergency brakes.
Every combination vehicle has two air lines, the service line and the emergency line. They run between each vehicle (tractor to trailer, trailer to dolly, dolly to second trailer, etc.). Emergency lines are often coded with the color red (red hose, red couplers or other parts) to keep from getting them mixed up with the blue service line.
Service Air Line:
The service line (also called the control line or signal line) carries air, which is controlled by the foot brake or the trailer hand brake. Depending on how hard you press the foot brake or hand valve, the pressure in the service line will similarly change. The service line is connected to relay valves. These valves allow the trailer brakes to be applied more quickly than would otherwise be possible.
Emergency Air Line:
The emergency line (also called the supply line) has two purposes. First, it supplies air to the trailer air tanks. Second, the emergency line controls the emergency brakes on combination vehicles. Loss of air pressure in the emergency line causes the trailer emergency brakes to come on. The pressure loss could be caused by a trailer breaking loose, thus tearing apart the emergency air hose. Or it could be caused by a hose, metal tubing or other part breaking, letting the air out. When the emergency line loses pressure, it also causes the tractor protection valve to close (the air supply knob will pop out).
Perform these checks in addition to Section 5.3: Inspecting Air Brake Systems. The following section explains how to check air brakes on combination vehicles. Check the brakes on a double or triple trailer as you would any combination vehicle.
Use the tractor parking brake and/or chock the wheels to hold the vehicle. Wait for air pressure to reach normal and then push in the red "trailer air supply" knob. This will supply air to the emergency (supply) lines. Use the trailer hand brake to provide air to the service line. Go to the rear of the rig. Open the emergency line shut-off valve at the rear of the last trailer.
You should hear air escaping, showing the entire system is charged. Close the emergency line valve. Open the service line valve to check that service pressure goes through all the trailers (this test assumes that the trailer hand brake or the service brake pedal is on) and then close the valve. If you do NOT hear air escaping from both lines, check that the shut-off valves on the trailer(s) and dolly(ies) are in the OPEN position. You MUST have air all the way to the back for all the brakes to work.
Charge the trailer air brake system. (That is, build up normal air pressure and push the "air supply" knob in.) Shut the engine off. Step on and off the brake pedal several times to reduce the air pressure in the tanks. The trailer air supply control (also called the tractor protection valve control) should pop out (or go from "normal" to "emergency" position) when the air pressure falls into the pressure range specified by the manufacturer (usually within the range of 20 to 45 psi).
If the tractor protection valve does not work right, an air hose or trailer brake leak could drain all the air from the tractor. This would cause the emergency brakes to come on, with possible loss of control.
Charge the trailer air brake system and check that the trailer rolls freely. Then stop and pull out the trailer air supply control (also called tractor protection valve control or trailer emergency valve), or place it in the "emergency" position. Pull gently on the trailer with the tractor to check that the trailer emergency brakes are on.
Check for normal air pressure, release the parking brakes, move the vehicle forward slowly and apply trailer brakes with the hand control (trolley valve), if so equipped. You should feel the brakes come on. This tells you the trailer brakes are connected and working. (The trailer brakes should be tested with the hand valve but controlled in normal operation with the foot pedal, which applies air to the service brakes at all wheels.)