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Define Axle Weight:
Which of the following is true about overloading a truck:
Problems caused by overloading:
What is the bridge formula, and why does it exist?
During a trip, how often must you inspect the cargo?
Re-check. Re-check the cargo and securing devices as often as necessary during a trip to keep the load secure. You need to inspect again:
Federal regulations require the aggregate working load limit of any securement system used to secure an article or group of articles against movement must be strong enough to lift:
Federal regulations require the aggregate working load limit of any securement system used to secure an article or group of articles against movement must be at least one and one-half times the weight of the article or group of articles. Proper tie-down equipment must be used, including ropes, straps, chains, and tensioning devices (winches, ratchets, clinching components). Tie-downs must be attached to the vehicle correctly (hooks, bolts, rails, rings).
After beginning a trip the driver should inspect the cargo within:
Which of the following is true about bracing:
Cargo should have at least:
Cargo should have at least one tie-down for every 10 feet of cargo. Make sure you have enough tie-downs to meet this need. No matter how small the cargo, it should have at least two tie-downs.
Too much weight on the steering axle can:
Which type of cargo requires special transit permits, limits driving to certain times, may require special signs, flashing lights, flags, and a police escort or pilot vehicle?
Over-length, over-width and/or overweight loads require special transit permits. Driving is usually limited to certain times. Special equipment may be necessary such as “wide load” signs, flashing lights, flags, etc. Such loads may require a police escort or pilot vehicles bearing warning signs and/or flashing lights. These special loads require special driving care.
Choose your next section:
The Transporting Cargo Safely portion of the CDL manual will be on the General Knowledge portion of the CDL permit written exam. A list of questions you should be able to answer for the exam include:
You must understand basic cargo safety rules to get a CDL. If you load cargo wrong or do not secure it, it can be a danger to others and yourself. Loose cargo that falls off a vehicle can cause traffic problems and others could be hurt or killed. Loose cargo could hurt or kill you during a quick stop or crash. Your vehicle could be damaged by an overload. Steering could be affected by how a vehicle is loaded, making it more difficult to control the vehicle.
Whether or not you load and secure the cargo yourself, you are responsible for:
If you intend to carry hazardous material that requires placards on your vehicle, you will also need to have a hazardous materials endorsement
As part of your pre-trip inspection, make sure the truck is not overloaded and the cargo is balanced and secured properly.
Federal, state and local regulations for commercial vehicle weight, securing cargo, covering loads and where you can drive large vehicles vary from place to place. Know the rules of where you will be driving.
You must keep weights within legal limits. States have maximums for GVWs, GCWs and axle weights. Often, maximum axle weights are set by a bridge formula. A bridge formula permits less maximum axle weight for axles that are closer together. This is to prevent overloading bridges and roadways.
Overloading can have bad effects on steering, braking and speed control. Overloaded trucks have to go very slowly on upgrades. Worse, they may gain too much speed on downgrades. Stopping distance increases. Brakes can fail when forced to work too hard.
Do not Be Top-heavy
The height of the vehicle's center of gravity is important for safe handling. A high center of gravity (cargo piled up high or heavy cargo on top) means you are more likely to tip over. It is most dangerous in curves or if you have to swerve to avoid a hazard. It is important to distribute the cargo so it is as low as possible. Put the heaviest parts of the cargo under the lightest parts.
Balance the Weight
Poor weight balance can make vehicle handling unsafe. Too much weight on the steering axle can cause hard steering. It can damage the steering axle and tires. Under-loaded front axles (caused by shifting weight too far to the rear) can make the steering axle weight too light to steer safely. Too little weight on the driving axles can cause poor traction. The drive wheels may spin easily. During bad weather, the truck may not be able to keep going. Weight that is loaded so there is a high center of gravity causes greater chance of rollover. On flat bed vehicles, there is also a greater chance that the load will shift to the side or fall off.
Blocking and Bracing
Blocking is used in the front, back and/or sides of a piece of cargo to keep it from sliding. Blocking is shaped to fit snugly against cargo. It is secured to the cargo deck to prevent cargo movement. Bracing is also used to prevent movement of cargo. Bracing goes from the upper part of the cargo to the floor and/or walls of the cargo compartment.
On flatbed trailers or trailers without sides, cargo must be secured to keep it from shifting or falling off. In closed vans, tie-downs can also be important to prevent cargo shifting that may affect the handling of the vehicle. Tie-downs must be of the proper type and proper strength. Federal regulations require the aggregate working load limit of any securement system used to secure an article or group of articles against movement must be at least one-half times the weight of the article or group of articles.
Proper tie-down equipment must be used, including ropes, straps, chains and tensioning devices (winches, ratchets, clinching components). Tie-downs must be attached to the vehicle correctly (hooks, bolts, rails, rings).
Cargo should have at least one tie-down for each 10 feet of cargo. Make sure you have enough tie-downs to meet this need. No matter how small the cargo, it should have at least two tie-downs. There are special requirements for securing various heavy pieces of metal. Find out what they are if you are to carry such loads.
There are two basic reasons for covering cargo:
Spill protection is a safety requirement in many states. Be familiar with the laws in the states you drive in. You should look at your cargo covers in the mirrors from time to time while driving. A flapping cover can tear loose, uncovering the cargo and possibly block your view or someone else's.
Certain types of cargo need special attention and knowledge to handle properly. You will learn more about these special types if you work for a company that hauls them.