- The distance your vehicle travels from the time your eyes see a hazard until your brain recognizes it
- The distance traveled from the time your brain tells your foot to move from the accelerator until your foot is actually pushing the brake pedal
- The distance it takes to stop once the brakes are applied
- All of these answers describe Reaction Distance
Quote From Page 29 Of The Illinois CDL Manual:
Reaction distance is the distance you will continue to travel, in ideal conditions; before you physically hit the brakes, in response to a hazard seen ahead. The average driver has a reaction time of ¾ second to 1 second. At 55 mph this accounts for 61 feet traveled.
It is very important to memorize the definition of Reaction Distance as well as memorizing Reaction Time and the distance traveled at 55mph. Nearly all written exams have questions about either Perception Distance, Reaction Distance, Braking Distance, or Total Stopping Distance. Make sure you know the definitions and distances for each.
- Pull back onto the roadway as slowly and gradually as possible
- Hold the wheel tightly and turn sharply enough to get right back on the road
- Only return one side of the vehicles tires to the roadway and wait for them to "grab" the surface before going further
- When both front tires return to a paved surface, hesitate about 1/2 second before counter-steering
Quote From Page 42 Of The Illinois CDL Manual:
If you are forced to return to the road before you can stop, use the following procedures:
- Hold the wheel tightly and turn sharply enough to get right back on the road safely. Do not try to edge gradually back on the road. If you do, your tires might grab unexpectedly and you could lose control.
- When both front tires are on the paved surface, countersteer immediately. The two turns should be made as a single "steer-countersteer" move.
- Set out reflective triangles to warn other traffic
- Put road flares on the ground near disabled vehicles
- Activate your emergency flashers
- If possible, move your vehicle to the side of the road
Quote From Page 45 Of The Illinois CDL Manual:
The first thing to do at an accident scene is to keep another accident from happening at the same spot.
- If your vehicle is involved in the accident, try to get it to the side of the road. This will help prevent another accident and allow traffic to move.
- If you are stopping to help, park away from the accident. The area immediately around the accident will be needed for emergency vehicles.
- Put on your flashers.
- Set out reflective triangles to warn other traffic. Make sure they can be seen by other drivers in time for them to avoid the accident.
- Do not put road flares on the ground near wrecked vehicles. Road flares could ignite any leaking flammable liquids.
As long as you always practice safe driving techniques, you probably will never be involved in a major accident. However, it is very likely you'll see a major accident occur or be one of the first people on scene. First and foremost, remember to protect yourself. Many good samaritans end up injuring themselves by stepping into a traffic lane, slipping on fluids spilled onto the roadway, or cutting themselves on debris from the accident. Don't become another victim!
While using road flares may be ok in some situations, remember that after an accident, flammable liquids may leak and spread along the ground, so it's best to use warning devices which don't have an ignition source, such as reflective warning triangles.
Quote From Page 35 Of The Illinois CDL Manual:
At night your headlights will usually be the main source of light for you to see and for others to see you. You cannot see nearly as much with your headlights as you can see in the daytime. With low beams you can see ahead about 250 feet and with high beams about 350-500 feet. You must adjust your speed to keep your stopping distance within your sight distance. This means going slow enough to be able to stop within the range of your headlights. Otherwise, by the time you see a hazard, you will not have time to stop.
- Use the parking brake to slow the vehicle down
- Downshift to a lower gear to help slow the vehicle
- All of these are steps you should take if you lose brake pressure
- Pump the brakes to try and regenerate hydraulic pressure
Quote From Page 43 Of The Illinois CDL Manual:
Loss of hydraulic pressure: When the system will not build up pressure, the brake pedal will feel spongy or go to the floor. Following are things you can do:
- Downshift - Putting the vehicle into a lower gear will help to slow the vehicle.
- Pump the brakes - Sometimes pumping the brake pedal will generate enough hydraulic pressure to stop the vehicle.
- Use the parking brake - The parking or emergency brake is separate from the hydraulic brake system. Therefore, it can be used to slow the vehicle. However, be sure to press the release button or pull the release lever at the same time you use the emergency brake so you can adjust the brake pressure and keep the wheels from locking up.
If you are becoming a Class-A licensed truck or bus driver, there is a very low chance you'll drive a commercial vehicle with hydraulic brakes, but you may still be asked a question about hydraulic brakes on the written exam.
- Stay off the brake and slow down very gradually
- Once stopped, visually check all tires as well as any damage flying tire debris may have cause to your vehicle
- Hold the steering wheel very firmly until you come to a complete stop
- Use the "stab braking" method
Quote From Page 44 Of The Illinois CDL Manual:
Hold the steering wheel firmly - If a front tire fails, it can twist the steering wheel out of your hand. The only way to prevent this is to keep a firm grip on the steering wheel with both hands at all times.
- Stay off the brake - It is natural to want to brake in an emergency. However, braking when a tire has failed could cause loss of control. Unless you are about to run into something, stay off the brake until the vehicle has slowed down. Then brake very gently, pull off the road and stop.
- Check the tires - After you have come to a stop, get out and check all the tires. Do this even if the vehicle seems to be handling all right. If one of your dual tires goes, the only way you may know it is by getting out and looking at the tires.
Having a tire blowout is very likely to occur during your driving career. When a blowout occurs, it's important to stay calm. Most accidents from tire blowouts occur due to drivers becoming spooked and overreacting. Stay calm and don't make any sudden or erratic movements. After the initial blowout, do not use your brakes. Allow the vehicle to slow down very gradually and once you're sure you have full control of the vehicle, start using gentle brake pressure and find a safe location to pull over.
Never go into the roadway to remove tire debris. If the debris is causing a traffic hazard, notify authorities about the situation and warn other truckers by using a CB Radio, if equipped..
- Spring hangers
Quote From Page 20 Of The Illinois CDL Manual:
Left front suspension:
- Condition of spring, spring hangers, shackles, u-bolts.
- Shock absorber condition.
- A paper fire
- A wood fire
- A gasoline fire
- A cloth fire
Quote From Page 46 Of The Illinois CDL Manual:
Water can be used on wood, paper or cloth, but do not use water on an electrical fire (you could get shocked) or a gasoline fire (it will just spread the flames).