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Driver's Handbook on Cargo Securement - Chapter 3: Logs

What Does This Section Cover?

The standard defines a log as all natural wood that retains the original shape of the bole (trunk) of a tree, whether raw, partially processed, or fully processed.

  • Raw: All tree species that have been harvested with bark; may have been trimmed or cut to length
  • Partially processed: Fully or partially debarked, or further reduced in length
  • Fully processed: Utility poles, treated poles, log cabin building components

The specific requirements for logs cover short wood and long wood.

Short Wood

  • Normally up to about 2.5 m (100 in) in length.
  • No longer than 4.9 m (16 ft) in length.
  • Also called:

    • Cut-up logs
    • Cut-to-length logs
    • Bolts
    • Pulp wood

Long Wood

  • Anything not considered short wood.
  • Also called Long Logs or Tree-length.

Exceptions to the specific requirements

The following types of logs are not covered by the specific logs requirements:

  • Logs unitized by banding or other comparable means. [Secure according to general cargo securement requirements.]
  • Loads of no more than four processed logs. [Secure according to general cargo securement requirements.]
  • Firewood, stumps, debris, other short logs, and longer logs. [Transport in a vehicle or container enclosed on both sides, the front, and the rear, and strong enough to contain them.]
What's in a stack?

Some stacks may consist of both short wood and long wood. Any stack that includes short wood must follow the short wood securement requirements.

Exception: If short wood is embedded in load of long wood, it can be treated as long wood.

Components of the Securement System

Specially designed vehicle

Requirements:

  • Vehicle must be designed and built, or adapted, for transportation of logs.
  • Vehicle must be fitted with a means to cradle the logs and prevent rolling, such as:
    • Bunks
    • Bolsters
    • Stakes. OR
    • Standards
  • All vehicle components must be designed and built to withstand all expected operational forces without failure, accidental release, or permanent deformation.

Stakes

Requirement:

If stakes or standards are not permanently attached to the vehicle, secure the stakes so that they do not separate from the vehicle.

Tiedowns

Requirements

  • Use tiedowns in combination with bunks, stakes, or standards and bolsters to secure the load.
  • All tiedowns must have a working load limit not less than 1,800 kg (4,000 lb.).
  • Tension tiedowns as tightly as possible but not beyond their working load limit.

Related Cargo Securement Terms That Every Driver Should Know:

  • Bulkhead:

    A vertical barrier across a vehicle to prevent forward movement of cargo.

  • Hook-lift Container:

    A specialized container, primarily used to contain and transport materials in the waste, recycling, construction/demolition, and scrap industries, which are used in conjunction with specialized vehicles, in which the container isloaded and unloaded onto a tilt frame body by an articulating hook-arm.

  • Well:

    The depression formed between two cylindrical articles when they are laid with their eyes horizontal and parallel against each other.

Multiple-Choice Questions:

Question #809 (1 of 7)

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A hook-lift container is:

  • A vehicle especially built and fitted with locking devices for the transport of intermodal containers.
  • A reusable, transportable enclosure that is especially designed with integral locking devices that secure it to a container chassis trailer to facilitate the efficient and bulk shipping and transfer of goods by, or between various modes of transport, such as highway, rail, sea, and air.
  • The load carrying area of a truck, trailer, or intermodal container.
  • A specialized container, primarily used to contain and transport materials in the waste, recycling, construction/demolition, and scrap industries, which are used in conjunction with specialized vehicles, in which the container isloaded and unloaded onto a tilt frame body by an articulating hook-arm.

Hook-lift Container:

A specialized container, primarily used to contain and transport materials in the waste, recycling, construction/demolition, and scrap industries, which are used in conjunction with specialized vehicles, in which the container isloaded and unloaded onto a tilt frame body by an articulating hook-arm.

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Question #810 (2 of 7)

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Which of the following are not covered by the specific log securement requirements?

  • Firewood, stumps, debris, other short logs, and longer logs.
  • None of these are covered by the specific log requirements
  • Loads of no more than four processed logs.
  • Logs unitized by banding or other comparable means.

The following types of logs are not covered by the specific logs requirements:

  • Logs unitized by banding or other comparable means. [Secure according to general cargo securement requirements.]
  • Loads of no more than four processed logs. [Secure according to general cargo securement requirements.]
  • Firewood, stumps, debris, other short logs, and longer logs. [Transport in a vehicle or container enclosed on both sides, the front, and the rear and strong enough to contain them.]
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Question #702 (3 of 7)

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In what circumstance can shortwood be treated as longwood?

  • Right after it is cut down.
  • When it is stacked long-ways on the trailer.
  • When it is embedded in a stack of longwood.
  • When it is painted green on the ends.
What's in a stack?

Some stacks may be made up of both shortwood and longwood. Any stack that includes shortwood must follow the shortwood securement requirements.

Exception: If shortwood is embedded in load of longwood, it can be treated as longwood.

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Question #701 (4 of 7)

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The definition for "shortwood" identifies pieces that are no longer than:

  • 16 ft
  • Half the length of the trailer.
  • The width of the road.
  • 75 in
Shortwood
  • Normally up to about 2.5 m (100 in) in length.
  • No longer than 4.9 m (16 ft) in length.
  • Also called:

    • Cut-up logs
    • Cut-to-length logs
    • Bolts
    • Pulpwood
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Question #808 (5 of 7)

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In terms of cargo securement, what is a 'well'?

  • A rail along the side of a vehicle that protects the side of the vehicle from impacts.
  • The depression formed between two cylindrical articles when they are laid with their eyes horizontal and parallel against each other.
  • A device placed between the deck of a vehicle and car or between articles of cargo, intended to provide greater friction than exists naturally between these surfaces.
  • A female housing fixed to the side or ends of a vehicle to receive a stake or peg, and may also be used as an anchor point.

Well:

The depression formed between two cylindrical articles when they are laid with their eyes horizontal and parallel against each other.

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Question #807 (6 of 7)

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A bulkhead is defined as:

  • A vertical barrier across a vehicle to prevent forward movement of cargo.
  • A vertical barrier placed directly behind the cab of a tractor to protect the cab in the event cargo should shift forward.
  • A structure, device, or another substantial article placed against or around an article to prevent horizontal movement of the article.
  • A vertical barrier across the front of the deck of a vehicle to prevent forward movement of cargo.

Bulkhead:

A vertical barrier across a vehicle to prevent forward movement of cargo.

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Question #703 (7 of 7)

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What is the minimum WLL of a tiedown used to secure logs?

  • 1,800 lb
  • 50% of cargo weight
  • 4,000 lb
  • It depends on if you are hauling shortwood or longwood
  • Use tiedowns in combination with bunks, stakes, or standards and bolsters to secure the load.
  • All tiedowns must have a working load limit not less than 1,800 kg (4,000 lb.).
  • Tension tiedowns as tightly as possible but not beyond their working load limit.
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